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In 1253, the Bedouin Usfurids brought down the Uyunid dynasty, thereby gaining control over eastern Arabia, including the islands of Bahrain.
In 1330, the archipelago became a tributary state of the rulers of Hormuz, In 1521, the Portuguese allied with Hormuz and seized Bahrain from the Jabrid ruler Migrin ibn Zamil, who was killed during the takeover.
The latter were tribes returning to the Arabian side of the Persian Gulf from Persian territories in the north who were known as Huwala (literally: those that have changed or moved).
In 1783, Al-Madhkur lost the islands of Bahrain following his defeat by the Bani Utbah tribe at the 1782 Battle of Zubarah.
Portuguese rule lasted for around 80 years, during which time they depended mainly on Sunni Persian governors.
During most of this period, they resorted to governing Bahrain indirectly, either through the city of Bushehr or through immigrant Sunni Arab clans.
Bahrain was not new territory to the Bani Utbah; they had been a presence there since the 17th century.
For many centuries after Tylos, Bahrain was known as Awal.
), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf. In 1783, the Bani Utbah clan captured Bahrain from Nasr Al-Madhkur and it has since been ruled by the Al Khalifa royal family, with Ahmed al Fateh as Bahrain's first hakim.
It is an island country consisting of a small archipelago centered around Bahrain Island, situated between the Qatar peninsula and the north eastern coast of Saudi Arabia, to which it is connected by the 25 km (16 mi) King Fahd Causeway. In the late 1800s, following successive treaties with the British, Bahrain became a protectorate of the United Kingdom. Formerly an emirate, Bahrain was declared a Kingdom in 2002.
Thereafter, the Qarmatians demanded tribute from the caliph in Baghdad, and in 930 sacked Mecca and Medina, bringing the sacred Black Stone back to their base in Ahsa, in medieval Bahrain, for ransom.
According to historian Al-Juwayni, the stone was returned 22 years later in 951 under mysterious circumstances.
Nearchus is believed to have been the first of Alexander's commanders to visit the island, and he found a verdant land that was part of a wide trading network; he recorded: "That on the island of Tylos, situated in the Persian Gulf, are large plantations of cotton trees, from which are manufactured clothes called sindones, of strongly differing degrees of value, some being costly, others less expensive.