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Late 19th century food scientists examined meat doneness, offering temperature/time recommendations according to type of meat, cut, and method of cooking. Meat thermometers (1930s) took the guesswork out of judging doneness. When today we ask for our steak well done, medium or rare, we are repeating a choice that the Renaissance writers revived from Hippocratic writings.Like their 17th century predecessors, early 20th cooking texts warn against rare meat. Black and blue (aka "Pittsburgh style" steak surfaces in print in the 1970s. In 1626 Pierre Duchatel noted the physical reactions to be expected from meat prepared in each of the thre ways '(1)...well-Boiled meat is suitable to the digestion. (2)...those meats that have been medium boiled or medium roasted add moderately to vigor and digestion. Medieval physicists--or physicians--told their contemporaries that cooking added either warmth and moisture or warmth and dryness to their foodstuff that was cooked: the cook chose his cooking method according to the inherent nature of the foodstuff and any need he had to correct this nature. F j b, Poched egges are better than egges rosted hard or rere. 86-87) [Medieval France] "Modern physicists tell us that cooking changes the chemical characteristics of a substance. A7, Egges newly laid, are nutritiue to eat, And rosted Reere are easie to digest. Grilled hops and steaks may be just right at the center but dry elsewhere; long-braised pot roasts and stews are often dry throughout." ---On Food and Cooking (p. With participial adjectives, as rear-boiled, rear-brede (see brede v.1), rear-dressed, rear-poached, rear-roasted, etc. However, today's industrially produced meats come from relatively young animals with more soluble collagen and far less fat; they cook quickly, and subber more from overcooking.
If the ignorant cook were to subject beef to a roasting, so further drying its already dry nature, this could be quite dangerous to the unfortunate person who was to eat it later, and could even put him or her at risk of an attack of melancholia or a bilous upset.
Oxford English Dictionary RARE Etymology: Originally a variant of rear adj.1 As a result of the lowering influence of r on preceding vowels in southern varieties of English, rear remained homophonous with rare adj.1 at least as late as the 17th cent. This gave rise to the variant rare, which retained the early modern pronunciation in standard English (compare the current pronunciation of e.g. (3)...rawer meats are conduucive to vigor but in fact rather poor for the digestion.' Because bloody meat was thought to increase one's vitality and zest, eating half-raw meat became intertwined with the goal of arousing the body at table." ---Acquired Taste: The French Origins of Modern Cooking, T.
The leading lights like eef wee cooked, though some of them nevertheless devour it bloody after the fashion on the Cyclops.
Unfortunately, these two aims conflict with each other... The method must be tailored to the meat's toughness.
The ideal method for cooking meat would therefore minimize moisture loss and compacting of the meat fiers, while maximizing the conversion of tough connective-tissue colllagen to fluid gelatin.
Joannes de Mediolano Regimen Sanitatis Salerni sig. It is important to remember that because meat was relatively tough and frequently salted to prevent spoilage, it was often necessary to rinse it in milk and boil it once or twice before using it in a specific recipe." ---A Taste of Ancient Rome, Ilaria Gozzini Giacosa, translated by Anna Herklotz [Univeristy of Chicago Press: Chicago] 1992 (p.